author: Whedon GD.
publication: J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1985 Dec;31 Suppl:S41-4.
Many studies and observations have shown the bone-losing effects of physical inactivity of various forms. Contrariwise, less precise studies and observations have supported the reasonable premise that mechanical loading of the skeleton via physical activity shifts the balance of bone remodeling in favor of bone formation, and appears to do so at all ages. Some interesting starts have been made in research to discover the mechanisms of the action on bone of mechanical loading, but many pathways remain to be explored. Besides the mechanical forces, we need to know more about the interrelations of muscle function, probably mediated through muscle-tendon pull on periosteum, and more about other likely influences, notably changes in circulation to bones. The practical significance relative to calcium metabolism and aging of what has been learned thus far on the effects of activity, is that prolonged inactivity, either in a chair or in bed, is to be avoided, because of its deleterious effects, and that reasonably energetic gravitational exercise, such as walking or possibly jogging, promotes maintenance of bone health.