Cardiovascular response of individuals with spinal cord injury to dynamic functional electrical stimulation under orthostatic stress

date: 2013 Jan;21(1):37-46.
author: Yoshida T.
publication: IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng.
PubMed ID: 22899587

Abstract

In this pilot study, we examined how effectively functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive stepping mitigated orthostatic hypotension in participants with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). While being tilted head-up to 70 (°) from the supine position, the participants underwent four 10-min conditions in a random sequence: 1) no intervention, 2) passive stepping, 3) isometric FES of leg muscles, and 4) FES of leg muscles combined with passive stepping. We found that FES and passive stepping independently mitigated a decrease in stroke volume and helped to maintain the mean blood pressure. The effects of FES on stroke volume and mean blood pressure were greater than those of passive stepping. When combined, FES and passive stepping did not interfere with each other, but they also did not synergistically increase stroke volume or mean blood pressure. Thus, the present study suggests that FES delivered to lower limbs can be used in individuals with SCI to help them withstand orthostatic stress. Additional studies are needed to confirm whether this use of FES is applicable to a larger population of individuals with SCI.

Comparison of orthostatic reactions of patients still unconscious within the first three months of brain injury on a tilt table with and without integrated stepping. A prospective, randomized crossover pilot trial.

date: 2008 Dec;22(12):1034-41
author: Luther MS
publication: Clin Rehabil
PubMed ID: 19052242

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether passive leg movement during tilt table mobilization reduces the incidence of orthostatic dysfunction in mobilization of patients being comatose or semi-comatose early after brain injury.

DESIGN:

Randomized crossover pilot trial using sequential testing.

SETTING:

Neurorehabilitation hospital.

SUBJECTS:

Nine patients still unconscious within the first three months of brain injury (5 men, 4 women; age 51 +/- 20 years).

INTERVENTION:

Patients were subjected once to a conventional tilt table and once to a tilt table with an integrated stepping device.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

The number of syncopes/presyncopes (orthostatic hypotension, tachypnoea, increased sweating) during interventions.

RESULTS:

One patient had presyncopes on both devices, six patients had presyncopes on the conventional tilt table but not on the tilt table with integrated stepping, and two patients did not exhibit presyncopal symptoms on either device. There were significantly more incidents on the tilt table without than on the one with an integrated stepping device (P < 0.05) at tilts of 50 or 70 degrees respectively.

CONCLUSION:

Patients tolerate greater degrees of head-up tilt better with simultaneous leg movement.

Effect of dynamic weight bearing on neuromuscular activation after spinal cord injury.

date: 2007 Jun;86(6):499-506
author: Edwards LC, Layne CS.
publication: Am J Phys Med Rehabil
PubMed ID:17515690

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether individuals who have a spinal cord injury have neuromuscular and physiologic responses to a personalized exercise program during dynamic weight bearing (DWB).

DESIGN:

Four subjects with spinal cord injuries (T6, T5-6, C2-5, and C5) completed a 12-wk exercise program that included DWB. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the right gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, rectus femoris, rectus abdominus, and external oblique. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded throughout training. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data.

RESULTS:

The results of this study indicate that the subjects actively responded to exercise during DWB, as measured by EMG, HR, and BP.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results suggest that exercise during DWB can induce physiologic and neuromuscular responses in individuals who have a spinal cord injury, and that exercise during DWB may serve as a preparatory program for more advanced rehabilitation.

Comparison of the effects of body-weight-supported treadmill training and tilt-table standing on spasticity in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.

date: 2011;34(5):488-94.
author: Adams MM, Hicks AL.
publication: J Spinal Cord Med.
PubMed ID: 22118256

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Determine the effects of body-weightsupported treadmill training (BWSTT) and tilt-table standing (TTS) on clinically assessed and self-reported spasticity, motor neuron excitability, and related constructs in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN:

Random cross-over.

METHODS:

Seven individuals with chronic SCI and spasticity performed thrice-weekly BWSTT for 4 weeks and thrice-weekly TTS for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week wash-out. Clinical (Modified Ashworth Scale, Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spinal reflexes) and self-report (Spinal Cord Injury Spasticity Evaluation Tool, Penn Spasm Frequency Scale) assessments of spasticity, quality of life (Quality of Life Index Spinal Cord Injury Version – III), functional mobility (FIM Motor Subscale), plus soleus H-reflex were measured at baseline, after the first training session and within 2 days of completing each training condition.

RESULTS:

In comparison with TTS, a single session of BWSTT had greater beneficial effects for muscle tone (effect size (ES) = 0.69), flexor spasms (ES = 0.57), and the H/M ratio (ES = 0.50). Similarly, flexor spasms (ES = 0.79), clonus (ES = 0.66), and self-reported mobility (ES = 1.27) tended to benefit more from 4 weeks of BWSTT than of TTS. Participation in BWSTT also appeared to be favorable for quality of life (ES = 0.50). In contrast, extensor spasms were reduced to a greater degree with TTS (ES = 0.68 for single session; ES = 1.32 after 4 weeks).

CONCLUSION:

While both BWSTT and TTS may provide specific benefits with respect to spasticity characteristics, data from this pilot study suggest that BWSTT may result in a broader range of positive outcomes.

Comparison of orthostatic reactions of patients still unconscious within the first three months of brain injury on a tilt table with and without integrated stepping. A prospective, randomized crossover pilot trial

date: 2008 Dec;22(12):1034-41.
author: Luther MS1, Krewer C, Müller F, Koenig E.
publication:Clin Rehabil.
pubmed_ID:19052242

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether passive leg movement during tilt table mobilization reduces the incidence of orthostatic dysfunction in mobilization of patients being comatose or semi-comatose early after brain injury.

DESIGN:

Randomized crossover pilot trial using sequential testing.

SETTING:

Neurorehabilitation hospital.

SUBJECTS:

Nine patients still unconscious within the first three months of brain injury (5 men, 4 women; age 51 +/- 20 years).

INTERVENTION:

Patients were subjected once to a conventional tilt table and once to a tilt table with an integrated stepping device.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

The number of syncopes/presyncopes (orthostatic hypotension, tachypnoea, increased sweating) during interventions.

RESULTS:

One patient had presyncopes on both devices, six patients had presyncopes on the conventional tilt table but not on the tilt table with integrated stepping, and two patients did not exhibit presyncopal symptoms on either device. There were significantly more incidents on the tilt table without than on the one with an integrated stepping device (P < 0.05) at tilts of 50 or 70 degrees respectively.

CONCLUSION:

Patients tolerate greater degrees of head-up tilt better with simultaneous leg movement.

Physical rehabilitation as an agent for recovery after spinal cord injury.

date: 2007 May;18(2):183-202
author: Behrman AL1, Harkema SJ
publication: Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am

 

Cardiac output and blood pressure during active and passive standing.

date: 03/16/1996
author: Tanaka H, Sjöberg BJ, Thulesius O.
publication: Clin Physiol. 1996 Mar;16(2):157-70.
pubmed_ID: 8964133
Outside_URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8964133
The present study compared the haemodynamic pattern of active and passive standing. We used non-invasive techniques with beat-to-beat evaluation of blood pressure, heart rate and stroke volume. Seven healthy subjects, aged 24-41 (mean 30) years were examined. Finger blood pressure was continuously recorded by volume clamp technique (Finapres), and simultaneous beat-to-beat beat stroke volume was obtained, using an ultrasound Doppler technique, from the product of the valvular area and the aortic flow velocity time integral in the ascending aorta from the suprasternal notch. Measurements were performed at rest, during active standing and following passive tilt (60 degrees). Active standing caused a transient but greater reduction of blood pressure and a higher increase of heart rate than passive tilt during the first 30s (delta mean blood pressure: -39 +/- 10 vs. -16 +/- 7 mmHg, delta heart rate: 35 +/- 8 vs. 12 +/- 7 beats m-1 (active standing vs. passive tilt; P < 0.01). There was a significantly larger increase in cardiac output during active standing (37 +/- 24 vs. 0 +/- 15%, P < 0.01) and a more marked decrease in total peripheral resistance (-58 +/- 11 vs. -16 +/- 17%, P < 0.01). A precipitous rise in intra-abdominal pressure (43 +/- 22 mmHg) could be observed upon rising only in active standing. This was interpreted as an indication of translocation of blood to the thorax. There was no significant difference in haemodynamic changes during the later stage of standing (1-7 min) between both manoeuvres. These results suggest that active standing causes a marked blood pressure reduction in the initial phase which seems to reflect systemic vasodilatation caused by activation of cardiopulmonary baroreflexes, probably due to a rapid shift of blood from the splanchnic vessels in addition to the shift from muscular vessels associated with abdominal and calf muscle contraction. Moreover, the ultrasound Doppler technique was found to be a more adequate method for rapid beat-to-beat evaluation of cardiac output during orthostatic manoeuvres.

Alternate leg movement amplifies locomotor-like muscle activity in spinal cord injured persons.

date: 02/01/2005
author: Kawashima N, Nozaki D, Abe MO, Akai M, Nakazawa K.
publication: J Neurophysiol. 2005 Feb;93(2):777-85. Epub 2004 Sep 22.
pubmed_ID: 15385590

It is now well recognized that muscle activity can be induced even in the paralyzed lower limb muscles of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) by imposing locomotion-like movements on both of their legs. Although the significant role of the afferent input related to hip joint movement and body load has been emphasized considerably in previous studies, the contribution of the “alternate” leg movement pattern has not been fully investigated. This study was designed to investigate to what extent the alternate leg movement influenced this “locomotor-like” muscle activity. The knee-locked leg swing movement was imposed on 10 complete SCI subjects using a gait training apparatus. The following three different experimental conditions were adopted: 1) bilateral alternate leg movement, 2) unilateral leg movement, and 3) bilateral synchronous (in-phase) leg movement. In all experimental conditions, the passive leg movement induced EMG activity in the soleus and medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles in all SCI subjects and in the biceps femoris muscle in 8 of 10 SCI subjects. On the other hand, the EMG activity was not observed in the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris muscles. The EMG level of these activated muscles, as quantified by integrating the rectified EMG activity recorded from the right leg, was significantly larger for bilateral alternate leg movement than for unilateral and bilateral synchronous movements, although the right hip and ankle joint movements were identical in all experimental conditions. In addition, the difference in the pattern of the load applied to the leg among conditions was unable to explain the enhancement of EMG activity in the bilateral alternate leg movement condition. These results suggest that the sensory information generated by alternate leg movements plays a substantial role in amplifying the induced locomotor-like muscle activity in the lower limbs.

Femoral loads during passive, active, and active-resistive stance after spinal cord injury: a mathematical model.

date: 03/19/2004
author: Frey Law LA, Shields RK.
publication: Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2004 Mar;19(3):313-21.
pubmed_ID: 15003348

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the loading environment for the distal femur during a novel standing exercise paradigm for people with spinal cord injury. DESIGN: A mathematical model based on experimentally derived parameters. BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal deterioration is common after spinal cord injury, often resulting in osteoporotic bone and increased risk of lower extremity fracture. Potential mechanical treatments have yet to be shown to be efficacious; however, no previous attempts have been made to quantify the lower extremity loading during passive, active, and active-resistive stance. METHODS: A static, 2-D model was developed to estimate the external forces; the activated quadriceps forces; and the overall bone compression and shear forces in the distal femur during passive (total support of frame), active (quadriceps activated minimally), and active-resistive (quadriceps activated against a resistance) stance. RESULTS: Passive, active, and active-resistive stance resulted in maximal distal femur compression estimates of approximately 45%, approximately 75%, and approximately 240% of body weight, respectively. Quadriceps force estimates peaked at 190% of body weight with active-resistive stance. The distal femur shear force estimates never exceeded 24% of body weight with any form of stance. CONCLUSIONS: These results support our hypothesis that active-resistive stance induces the highest lower extremity loads of the three stance paradigms, while keeping shear to a minimum. RELEVANCE: This model allows clinicians to better understand the lower extremity forces resulting from passive, active, and active-resistive stance in individuals with spinal cord injury.

Bone loss and muscle atrophy in spinal cord injury: epidemiology, fracture prediction, and rehabilitation strategies.

date: 01/01/2006
author: Giangregorio L, McCartney N.
publication: J Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29(5):489-500.
pubmed_ID: 17274487

Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) often experience bone loss and muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy can result in reduced metabolic rate and increase the risk of metabolic disorders. Sublesional osteoporosis predisposes individuals with SCI to an increased risk of low-trauma fracture. Fractures in people with SCI have been reported during transfers from bed to chair, and while being turned in bed. The bone loss and muscle atrophy that occur after SCI are substantial and may be influenced by factors such as completeness of injury or time post injury. A number of interventions, including standing, electrically stimulated cycling or resistance training, and walking exercises have been explored with the aim of reducing bone loss and/or increasing bone mass and muscle mass in individuals with SCI. Exercise with electrical stimulation appears to increase muscle mass and/or prevent atrophy, but studies investigating its effect on bone are conflicting. Several methodological limitations in exercise studies with individuals with SCI to date limit our ability to confirm the utility of exercise for improving skeletal status. The impact of standing or walking exercises on muscle and bone has not been well established. Future research should carefully consider the study design, skeletal measurement sites, and the measurement techniques used in order to facilitate sound conclusions.