author: Miller PB, Johnson RL, Lamb Le.
publication: Aerosp Med. 1964 Dec;35:1194-200.
author: Miller PB, Johnson RL, Lamb Le.
publication: Aerosp Med. 1964 Dec;35:1194-200.
author: Gudjonsdottir B, Mercer VS.
publication: Pediatr Phys Ther. 2002 Spring;14(1):49-51.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this clinical suggestion is to describe a new type of a stander, a dynamic stander. KEY POINTS: The dynamic stander may give children with severe cerebral palsy an opportunity for movement in lower extremities and trunk while they are standing. It may increase their tolerance for standing in a stander for a considerable period of time. In addition, the potential for increased bone mineral density might be greater with a dynamic stander than a conventional stander. The design, development, and initial clinical use of the new type of stander is described. SUMMARY: Some minor problems related to the design of the dynamic stander were noted. Design changes to correct these problems could be easily implemented before the introduction of the stander for more widespread clinical use.
author: Sundblad P, Spaak J, Linnarsson D.
publication: Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000 Nov;83(4 -5):303-9.
Seven healthy men performed steady-state dynamic leg exercise at 50 W in supine and upright postures, before (control) and repeatedly after 42 days of strict head-down tilt (HDT) (-6 degrees) bedrest. Steady-state heart rate (fc), mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output (Qc), and stroke volume (SV) were recorded. The following data changed significantly from control values. The fc was elevated in both postures at least until 12 days, but not at 32 days after bedrest. Immediately after HDT, SV and Qc were decreased by 25 (SEM 3)% and 19 (SEM 3)% in supine, and by 33 (SEM 5)% and 20 (SEM 3)% in upright postures, respectively. Within 2 days there was a partial recovery of SV in the upright but not in the supine posture. The SV and Qc during supine exercise remained significantly decreased for at least a month. Submaximal oxygen uptake did not change after HDT. We concluded that the cardiovascular response to exercise after prolonged bedrest was impaired for so long that it suggested that structural cardiac changes had developed during the HDT period.
author: Frey Law LA, Shields RK.
publication: Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2004 Mar;19(3):313-21.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the loading environment for the distal femur during a novel standing exercise paradigm for people with spinal cord injury. DESIGN: A mathematical model based on experimentally derived parameters. BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal deterioration is common after spinal cord injury, often resulting in osteoporotic bone and increased risk of lower extremity fracture. Potential mechanical treatments have yet to be shown to be efficacious; however, no previous attempts have been made to quantify the lower extremity loading during passive, active, and active-resistive stance. METHODS: A static, 2-D model was developed to estimate the external forces; the activated quadriceps forces; and the overall bone compression and shear forces in the distal femur during passive (total support of frame), active (quadriceps activated minimally), and active-resistive (quadriceps activated against a resistance) stance. RESULTS: Passive, active, and active-resistive stance resulted in maximal distal femur compression estimates of approximately 45%, approximately 75%, and approximately 240% of body weight, respectively. Quadriceps force estimates peaked at 190% of body weight with active-resistive stance. The distal femur shear force estimates never exceeded 24% of body weight with any form of stance. CONCLUSIONS: These results support our hypothesis that active-resistive stance induces the highest lower extremity loads of the three stance paradigms, while keeping shear to a minimum. RELEVANCE: This model allows clinicians to better understand the lower extremity forces resulting from passive, active, and active-resistive stance in individuals with spinal cord injury.
author: Axelson P, Gurski D, Lasko-Harvill A.
publication: RESNA 10th Annual Conference San Jose, California 1987
A broad spectrum of physiological problems are associated with lack of gravitational stress in the individual with spinal cord injury. Prolonged immobilization results in systemic de-adaptations which include cardiovascular changes, the alteration of calcium homeostasis which leads to bone de-mineralization and risk of urinary calculi.
Weight bearing in the standing posture has been shown to ameliorate many of these problems and offers physiological advantages for the individual with spinal card injury.
There are also significant psychological and social benefits to standing, including improved self-image, and eye-to-eye interpersonal contact. Increased vocational, recreational and daily living independence are additional benefits of standing.
author: Giangregorio L, McCartney N.
publication: J Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29(5):489-500.
Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) often experience bone loss and muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy can result in reduced metabolic rate and increase the risk of metabolic disorders. Sublesional osteoporosis predisposes individuals with SCI to an increased risk of low-trauma fracture. Fractures in people with SCI have been reported during transfers from bed to chair, and while being turned in bed. The bone loss and muscle atrophy that occur after SCI are substantial and may be influenced by factors such as completeness of injury or time post injury. A number of interventions, including standing, electrically stimulated cycling or resistance training, and walking exercises have been explored with the aim of reducing bone loss and/or increasing bone mass and muscle mass in individuals with SCI. Exercise with electrical stimulation appears to increase muscle mass and/or prevent atrophy, but studies investigating its effect on bone are conflicting. Several methodological limitations in exercise studies with individuals with SCI to date limit our ability to confirm the utility of exercise for improving skeletal status. The impact of standing or walking exercises on muscle and bone has not been well established. Future research should carefully consider the study design, skeletal measurement sites, and the measurement techniques used in order to facilitate sound conclusions.
author: Katz, Danielle,MD, Snyder, Bryan MD, PhD, Dodek, Anton MD, Holm, Ingrid MD Miller, Claire BS
publication: Abstract as published in the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) 2006 Conference Proceedings
Purpose: Pathologic fractures are a significant source of morbidity for non-ambulatory children with neuromuscular dysfunction. We hypothesize that increasing weight-bearing in non-ambulatory children will increase bone material density (BMD) and decrease fracture risk. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate that non-ambulatory children participating in a standing program for at least two hours a day will experience an increase in BMD in the weight bearing bones. We also evaluate the reliability of measuring BMD at the calcaneous (weight bearing bones) and distal forearm (non-weight bearing bone) using peripheral DXA in delayed, non-ambulatory children.
Methods: After receiving IRB approval, 12 non-ambulatory, quadriplegic children (ages 12-21) consented to participate in a 2 hour/day, 5 day/week standing program. A history, orthopaedic exam, determination of bone age, laboratory tests for metabolic bone disease and BMD at the calcaneal tuberosity and distal forearm metaphyses were obtained. Compliance with the prescribed standing program was monitored for 6 months. BMD was measured using peripheral DXA at baseline and every 3 months. Using Jan. 2003 BMD data as a baseline, the ratio of change in BMD at the calcaneous and distal forearm was evaluated as a function of percent compliance with standing program.
Results: Intrarater reliability for BMD measured by peripheral DXA was good: Pearson correlation for the calcaneous = 0.90 (p=0.01) and for the forearm = 0.96 (p=0.01). Paired t test between two sets of data measured at each site on the same day were not different for calcaneous (t=0.92, df=15, p=0.37) or forearm (t=0.05, df=15, p=0.96). Compliance with the standing program was inconsistent. No patients were 100% compliant. Patients tended to stand longer at the initiation of the study Jan.-April (Jan vs Apr, p = 0.018; Jan vs Jul, p = 0.89; Apr vs Jul, p = 0.063). Compliance (%) was positively correlated (r = -0.62) with increased calcaneous BMD measured in April. This is in contrast to forearm BMD measured at the same time; which was negatively correlated (r = -0.44) with standing compliance. This support the notion that standing preferentially increases bone mass in the weight-bearing bones. However the BMD at the calcaneous measured in July was decreased, perhaps reflecting the decreased compliance the with standing program over the succeeding interval April-July.
Conclusion: It is feasible to have non-ambulatory children participate in a rigorous standing program. The weight bearing ?dose? affects BMD at the calcaneous but the benefit appears to be transient if the intensive standing program is not sustained.
Significance: The intensive use of standers (10 hours/wk) may have a beneficial effect on BMD of weight bearing bones in non-ambulatory children.
author: Jacobs PL, Johnson B, Mahoney ET.
publication: J Spinal Cord Med. 2003 Winter;26(4):384-9.
BACKGROUND: Systems of functional electrical stimulation (FES) have been demonstrated to enable some persons with paraplegia to stand and ambulate limited distances. However, the energy costs and acute physiologic responses associated with FES standing activities have not been well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To compare the physiologic responses of persons with paraplegia to active FES-assisted standing (AS) and frame-supported passive standing (PS). METHODS: Fifteen persons with paraplegia (T6-T11) previously habituated to FES ambulation, completed physiologic testing of PS and AS. The AS assessments were performed using a commercial FES system (Parastep-1; Altimed, Fresno, Calif); the PS tests used a commercial standing frame (Easy Stand 5000; Altimed, Fresno, Calif). Participants also performed a peak arm-cranking exercise (ACE) test using a progressive graded protocol in 3-minute stages and 10-watt power output increments to exhaustion. During all assessments, metabolic activity and heart rate (HR) were measured via open-circuit spirometry and 12-lead electrocardiography, respectively. Absolute physiologic responses to PS and AS were averaged over 1-minute periods at 5-minute intervals (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes) and adjusted relative to peak values displayed during ACE to determine percentage of peak (%pk) values. Absolute and relative responses were compared between test conditions (AS and PS) and across time using two-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The AS produced significantly greater values of VO2 (43%pk) than did PS (20%pk). The mean HR responses to PS (100-102 beats per minute [bpm] throughout) were significantly lower than during AS, which ranged from 108 bpm at 5 minutes to 132 bpm at test termination. CONCLUSION: Standing with FES requires significantly more energy than does AS and may provide a cardiorespiratory stress sufficient to meet minimal requirements for exercise conditioning.
author: Binkley T, Johnson J, Vogel L, Kecskemethy H, Henderson R, Specker B.
publication: J Pediatr. 2005 Dec;147(6):791-6.
OBJECTIVE: To use peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to determine bone measurements in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) age 3 to 20 years and compare them with control subjects. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 13 (5 male) patients with CP, along with 2 sex- and age-matched controls for each, were included in a mixed-model analysis with matched pairs as random effects for pQCT bone measurements of the 20% distal tibia. RESULTS: Tibia length was similar in the CP and control groups (P = .57). Weight was marginally higher in the control group (P = .06). Cortical bone mineral content (BMC), area, thickness, polar strength-strain index (pSSI), and periosteal and endosteal circumferences were greater in the control group (P < .05 for all). Relationships between bone measurements and weight showed that cortical BMC, area, periosteal circumference, and pSSI were greater at higher weights in the control group (group-by-weight interaction, P < .05 for all). Cortical thickness was greater in the control group and was correlated with weight. Cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) was greater with higher weights in the CP group (group-by-weight interaction, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Bone strength, as indicated by pSSI, is compromised in children with CP due to smaller and thinner bones, not due to lower cortical bone density.
author: Ferris DP, Huang HJ, Kao PC.
publication: Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2006 Jul;34(3):113-20.
Recent studies on neurologically intact individuals and individuals with spinal cord injury indicate that rhythmic upper limb muscle activation has an excitatory effect on lower limb muscle activation during locomotor-like tasks. This finding suggests that gait rehabilitation therapy after neurological injury should incorporate simultaneous upper limb and lower limb rhythmic exercise to take advantage of neural coupling.