RESNA POSITION ON THE APPLICATION OF WHEELCHAIR STANDING DEVICES: 2013 CURRENT STATE OF THE LITERATURE
date: Dec. 23, 2013
author: Dicianno BE, Morgan A, Lieberman J, Rosen L
publication: Assit Technol.
This article, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America Board of Directors on December 23, 2013, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of wheelchair standers
author: Tolman KG, Jubiz W, Sannella JJ, Madsen JA, Belsey RE, Goldsmith RS, Freston JW.
publication: Pediatrics. 1975 Jul;56(1):45-50.
A survey of 289 severely retarded inpatients at a school for retarded children in American Fork; Utah revealed 67 patients with osteomalacia as defined by hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and appropriate bone changes. Investigation of the variables which might influence bone mineralization revealed no differences in age, sex, physical activity, sunshine exposure, or dietary intake of vitamin D between the osteomalacia and nonosteomalacia groups. However, all of the patients with osteomalacia were receiving anticonvulsant medications, either phenobarbital, diphenylhydantoin, or both. Duration of anticonvulsant therapy was the most important contributing factor to the development of osteomalacia. Seventy-five percent of patients who had received anticonvulsants for more than ten years had osteomalacia. The single most costly medical problem at the school is the treatment of pathologic bone fractures due to demineralized bone.
author: Axelson P, Gurski D, Lasko-Harvill A.
publication: RESNA 10th Annual Conference San Jose, California 1987
A broad spectrum of physiological problems are associated with lack of gravitational stress in the individual with spinal cord injury. Prolonged immobilization results in systemic de-adaptations which include cardiovascular changes, the alteration of calcium homeostasis which leads to bone de-mineralization and risk of urinary calculi.
Weight bearing in the standing posture has been shown to ameliorate many of these problems and offers physiological advantages for the individual with spinal card injury.
There are also significant psychological and social benefits to standing, including improved self-image, and eye-to-eye interpersonal contact. Increased vocational, recreational and daily living independence are additional benefits of standing.
author: Behrman AL, Harkema SJ.
publication: Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2007 May;18(2):183-202, v.
The initial level of injury and severity of volitional motor and clinically detectable sensory impairment has been considered the most reliable for predicting neurologic recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). This consensus implies a limited expectation for physical rehabilitation interventions as important in the facilitation of recovery of function. The development of pharmacologic and surgical interventions has always been pursued with the intent of altering the expected trajectory of recovery after SCI, but only recently physical rehabilitation strategies have been considered to improve recovery beyond the initial prognosis. This article reviews the recent literature reporting emerging activity-based therapies that target recovery of standing and walking based on activity-dependent neuroplasticity. A classification scheme for physical rehabilitation interventions is also discussed to aid clinical decision making.
author: Eng JJ, Levins SM, Townson AF, Mah-Jones D, Bremner J, Huston G.
publication: Phys Ther. 2001 Aug;81(8):1392-9.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prolonged standing in people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) has the potential to affect a number of health-related areas such as reflex activity, joint range of motion, or well-being. The purpose of this study was to document the patterns of use of prolonged standing and their perceived effects in subjects with SCIs. SUBJECTS: The subjects were 152 adults with SCIs (103 male, 49 female; mean age=34 years, SD=8, range=18-55) who returned mailed survey questionnaires. METHODS: A 17-item self-report survey questionnaire was sent to the 463 members of a provincial spinal cord support organization. RESULTS: Survey responses for 26 of the 152 respondents were eliminated from the analysis because they had minimal effects from their injuries and did not need prolonged standing as an extra activity. Of the 126 remaining respondents, 38 respondents (30%) reported that they engaged in prolonged standing for an average of 40 minutes per session, 3 to 4 times a week, as a method to improve or maintain their health. The perceived benefits included improvements in several health-related areas such as well-being, circulation, skin integrity, reflex activity, bowel and bladder function, digestion, sleep, pain, and fatigue. The most common reason that prevented the respondents from standing was the cost of equipment to enable standing. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Considering the many reported benefits of standing, this activity may be useful for people with SCI. This study identified a number of body systems and functions that may need to be investigated if clinical trials of prolonged standing in people with SCI are undertaken.
author: Dunn RB, Walter JS, Lucero Y, Weaver F, Langbein E, Fehr L, Johnson P, Riedy L.
publication: Assistive Technology. 1998;10(2):84-93.
The use of standing devices by spinal cord-injured subjects was investigated through a national survey of a sample of individuals who returned their manufacturer’s warranty card to two companies. We obtained a 32% response rate (99/310). The majority of respondents were male (87%) with a median age between 41 and 50 years. Seventy-seven percent were paraplegic and 21% were quadriplegic. Forty percent had between 1 and 5 years experience with their device, and 84% of those responding were currently using their standing device. Forty-one percent used their standing device one to six times a week; two-thirds stood between 30 minutes and 1 hour for each use. Less than 10% of subjects experienced any side effects, such as nausea or headaches, from standing. Twenty-one percent of subjects reported being able to empty their bladder more completely. There was also a favorable response by some individuals on the effects of the standing devices on bowel regularity, reduction of urinary tract infections, leg spasticity, and number of bedsores. Finally, 79% of subjects highly recommended use of standing devices to other people with spinal cord injury. The positive responses of individuals using standing devices is a strong recommendation for the assistive technology community to make these devices more available to individuals with spinal cord injury.