date: 2005 Feb 4;27(3):142-6
author: Shields RK.
publication: Disabil Rehabil
An important issue in spinal cord injury (SCI) research is whether standing can yield positive health benefits. However, quantifying dose of standing and establishing subject compliance with a standing protocol is difficult. This case report describes a method to monitor dose of standing outside the laboratory, describes the standing patterns of one subject, and describes this subject’s satisfaction with the standing protocol.
A man with T-10 complete paraplegia agreed to have his commercially available standing wheelchair instrumented with a custom-designed logging device for a 2-year period. The micro-controller-based logger, under custom software control, was mounted to the standing wheelchair. The logger recorded date, duration, angle of standing, and start/stop times.
The client exceeded a suggested minimum dosage of standing per month (130.4% of goal), choosing to stand for short bouts (mean = 11.57 min) at an average angle of 61 degrees, on an average 3.86 days per calendar week. He was generally very satisfied with the standing device and provided subjective reports of improved spasticity and bowel motility.
This case report describes a standing and surveillance system that allow quantification of standing dose. Future controlled studies are needed to evaluate whether standing can be beneficially affect secondary complications after SCI.
Bone mineral density in upper and lower extremities during 12 months after spinal cord injury measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography
date: 2000 Jan;38(1):26-32.
author: Frey-Rindova P.
publication: Spinal Cord.
To evaluate the loss of trabecular and cortical bone mineral density in radius, ulna and tibia of spinal cord injured persons with different levels of neurologic lesion after 6, 12 and 24 months of spinal cord injury (SCI).
Prospective study in a Paraplegic Centre of the University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
Twenty-nine patients (27 males, two females) were examined by the highly precise peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) soon after injury and subsequently at 6, 12 and in some cases 24 months after SCI. Using analysis of the bone mineral density (BMD), various degrees of trabecular and cortical bone loss were recognised. A rehabilitation program was started as soon as possible (1-4 weeks) after SCI. The influence of the level of neurological lesion was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Spasticity was assessed by the Ashworth Scale.
The trabecular bone mineral density of radius and ulna was significantly reduced in subjects with tetraplegia 6 months (radius 19% less, P<0.01; ulna 6% less, P>0.05) and 12 months after SCI (radius 28% less, P<0.01; ulna 15% less, P<0.05). The cortical bone density was significantly reduced 12 months after SCI (radius 3% less, P<0.05; ulna 4% less, P<0.05). No changes in BMD of trabecular or cortical bone of radius and ulna were detected in subjects with paraplegia. The trabecular BMD of tibia was significantly reduced 6 months (5% less, P<0.05) and 12 months after SCI (15% less, P<0.05) in all subjects with SCI. The cortical bone density of the tibia only was decreased after a year following SCI (7% less, P<0.05). No significant difference between both groups, subjects with paraplegia and subjects with tetraplegia was found for tibia cortical or trabecular BMD. There was no significant influence for the physical activity level or the degree of spasticity on bone mineral density in all subjects with SCI.
Twelve months after SCI a significant decrease of BMD was found in trabecular bone in radius and in tibia of subjects with tetraplegia. In subjects paraplegia, a decrease only in tibia BMD occurred. Intensity of physical activity did not significantly influence the loss of BMD in all subjects with para- and tetraplegia. However, in some subjects regular intensive loading exercise activity in early rehabilitation (tilt table, standing) can possibly attenuate the decrease of BMD of tibia. No influence was found for the degree of spasticity on the bone loss in all subjects with SCI
date: 1993 Oct;74(10):1121-2
author: Bohannon R.
publication: Arch Phys Med Rehabil
A patient with a T12 spinal cord injury and intractable extensor spasms of the lower extremities participated in tilt table standing trial on 5 nonconsecutive days to determine if the intervention would affect his spasticity and spasms. Each day’s standing trial was followed by an immediate reduction in lower extremity spasticity (measured using the modified Ashworth scale and pendulum testing). Standing was also accompanied by a reduction in spasms that lasted until the following morning. The reduction of spasms was particularly advantageous to the performance of car transfers. Tilt table standing merits further examination as a physical treatment of spasms that accompany central nervous system lesions.
Comparison of the effects of body-weight-supported treadmill training and tilt-table standing on spasticity in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.
author: Adams MM, Hicks AL.
publication: J Spinal Cord Med.
PubMed ID: 22118256
Determine the effects of body-weight–supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and tilt-table standing (TTS) on clinically assessed and self-reported spasticity, motor neuron excitability, and related constructs in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI).
Seven individuals with chronic SCI and spasticity performed thrice-weekly BWSTT for 4 weeks and thrice-weekly TTS for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week wash-out. Clinical (Modified Ashworth Scale, Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spinal reflexes) and self-report (Spinal Cord Injury Spasticity Evaluation Tool, Penn Spasm Frequency Scale) assessments of spasticity, quality of life (Quality of Life Index Spinal Cord Injury Version – III), functional mobility (FIM Motor Subscale), plus soleus H-reflex were measured at baseline, after the first training session and within 2 days of completing each training condition.
In comparison with TTS, a single session of BWSTT had greater beneficial effects for muscle tone (effect size (ES) = 0.69), flexor spasms (ES = 0.57), and the H/M ratio (ES = 0.50). Similarly, flexor spasms (ES = 0.79), clonus (ES = 0.66), and self-reported mobility (ES = 1.27) tended to benefit more from 4 weeks of BWSTT than of TTS. Participation in BWSTT also appeared to be favorable for quality of life (ES = 0.50). In contrast, extensor spasms were reduced to a greater degree with TTS (ES = 0.68 for single session; ES = 1.32 after 4 weeks).
While both BWSTT and TTS may provide specific benefits with respect to spasticity characteristics, data from this pilot study suggest that BWSTT may result in a broader range of positive outcomes.
Whole-body vibration training compared with resistance training: effect on spasticity, muscle strength and motor performance in adults with cerebral palsy.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on spasticity, muscle strength and motor performance after 8 weeks of whole-body vibration training compared with resistance training in adults with cerebral palsy.
Fourteen persons with spastic diplegia (21-41 years) were randomized to intervention with either whole-body vibration training (n=7) or resistance training (n=7). Pre- and post-training measures of spasticity using the modified Ashworth scale, muscle strength using isokinetic dynamometry, walking ability using Six-Minute Walk Test, balance using Timed Up and Go test and gross motor performance using Gross Motor Function Measure were performed.
Spasticity decreased in knee extensors in the whole-body vibration group. Muscle strength increased in the resistance training group at the velocity 30 degrees /s and in both groups at 90 degrees /s. Six-Minute Walk Test and Timed Up and Go test did not change significantly. Gross Motor Function Measure increased in the whole-body vibration group.
These data suggest that an 8-week intervention of whole-body vibration training or resistance training can increase muscle strength, without negative effect on spasticity, in adults with cerebral palsy.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged standing on gait characteristics in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Six children with spastic cerebral palsy participated in this study with an average age of 6.5 years (SD = 2.5, range = 4.0-9.8 years). A reverse baseline design (A-B-A) was used over a 9-week period. During phase A, the children received their usual physical therapy treatment. During phase B, children received the prolonged standing program three times per week, in addition to their usual physical therapy treatment. During phase A2, children received their usual physical therapy treatment. Gait analysis and clinical assessment of spasticity were performed before and after each phase. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measurements was used to test for changes in gait measures across the four measurement sessions. Friedman’s was used to test for changes in muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale) across the four measurement sessions. Stride length (p <.001), gait speed (p <.001), stride time (p <.001), stance phase time (p <.001), double support time (p <.003), muscle tone (p <.02), and peak dorsiflexion angle during midstance (p <.004) improved significantly following the intervention phase. The results of this study demonstrate that the gait pattern of children with cerebral palsy classified as level II or III on the Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) improved by a prolonged standing program. However, these improvements were not maintained at 3 weeks. Further research is necessary with larger sample sizes to replicate these findings and determine specific “dosing” for standing programs to create long-lasting functional effects on gait.
author: Shields RK, Dudley-Javoroski S.
publication: Disabil Rehabil. 2005 Feb 4;27(3):142-6.
PURPOSE: An important issue in spinal cord injury (SCI) research is whether standing can yield positive health benefits. However, quantifying dose of standing and establishing subject compliance with a standing protocol is difficult. This case report describes a method to monitor dose of standing outside the laboratory, describes the standing patterns of one subject, and describes this subject’s satisfaction with the standing protocol. METHOD: A man with T-10 complete paraplegia agreed to have his commercially available standing wheelchair instrumented with a custom-designed logging device for a 2-year period. The micro-controller-based logger, under custom software control, was mounted to the standing wheelchair. The logger recorded date, duration, angle of standing, and start/stop times. RESULTS: The client exceeded a suggested minimum dosage of standing per month (130.4% of goal), choosing to stand for short bouts (mean = 11.57 min) at an average angle of 61 degrees, on an average 3.86 days per calendar week. He was generally very satisfied with the standing device and provided subjective reports of improved spasticity and bowel motility. CONCLUSION: This case report describes a standing and surveillance system that allow quantification of standing dose. Future controlled studies are needed to evaluate whether standing can be beneficially affect secondary complications after SCI.
author: Tsai KH, Yeh CY, Chang HY, Chen JJ.
publication: Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China B. 2001 Apr;25(2):76-81.
The control of spasticity is often a significant problem in the management of patients with spasticity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single session of prolonged muscle stretch (PMS) on the spastic muscle. Seventeen patients with spastic hemiplegia were selected to receive treatment. Subjects underwent PMS of the triceps surae (TS) by standing with the feet dorsiflexed on a tilt-table for 30 minutes. Our test battery consisted of four measurements including the modified Ashworth scale of the TS, the passive range of motion (ROM) of ankle dorsiflexion, the H/M ratio of the TS, and the F/M ratio of the tibialis anterior (TA). The results indicated that the passive ROM of ankle dorsiflexion increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to that before PMS treatment. Additionally, PMS reduced motor neuron excitability of the TS and significantly increased that of the TA (p < 0.05). These results suggest that 30 minutes of PMS is effective in reducing motor neuron excitability of the TS in spastic hemiplegia, thus providing a safe and economical method for treating stroke patients.
author: Deshpande P, Shields RK.
publication: Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2004 Jul-Aug;44(5):259-64.
H-reflexes have been used to assess the effect of various postures on the excitability of the soleus motor neuronal pool. The purpose of this study was to determine if the excitability of the motor neuron pool, measured via H-reflexes in a seated position, change after a standing protocol in able-bodied individuals. We hypothesized that the excitability of the motor neuronal pool is minimally affected by the standing protocol leading to a reproducible H-reflex. Ten healthy individuals (height = 69.05+/-2.27 inches, weight = 161.7+/-22.44 lbs, age = 27.7+/-7.0 years) participated in the study. Soleus H-reflex recruitment curves were established before and after a standing protocol in a seated position. The standing protocol involved 12 minutes of active upright standing interspersed with 10 minutes of relaxed passive standing in a standing frame, similar to a protocol currently used for spinal cord injured subjects. The maximum M-waves and H-reflex amplitudes were not systematically changed before and after standing. There was also a strong agreement between the H-reflexes and M-waves measured before and after standing (ICC = 0. 99 and .96, respectively). We conclude that the H-reflexes measured in this study were reproducible, indicating that standing had no long lasting effect on the motor neuronal pool excitability. The findings support that the method discussed in this report is appropriate to assess the effects of electrically induced standing on motor neuron pool excitability in individuals with spasticity from spinal cord injury.