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Circulatory hypokinesis and functional electric stimulation during standing in persons with spinal cord injury.

date: 11/01/2001
author: Faghri PD, Yount JP, Pesce WJ, Seetharama S, Votto JJ.
publication: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Nov;82(11):1587-95
pubmed_ID: 11689980
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of functional electric stimulation (FES) of lower limb muscles during 30 minutes of upright standing on the central and peripheral hemodynamic response in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: A repeated-measure design. Subjects were used as their own control and underwent 2 testing protocols of FES-augmented standing (active standing) and non-FES standing (passive standing). SETTING: Rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen individuals with SCI (7 with tetraplegia, 7 with paraplegia). INTERVENTIONS: During active standing, FES was administered to 4 muscle groups of each leg in an overlapping fashion to produce a pumping mechanism during standing. During passive standing, subjects stood for 30 minutes using a standing frame with no FES intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Central hemodynamic responses of stroke volume, cardiac output, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and rate pressure product (RPP) were evaluated by impedance cardiography. All measurements were performed during supine and sitting positions before and after standing, and during 30 minutes of upright standing. RESULTS: Comparisons between the groups with paraplegia and tetraplegia showed a significant increase in heart rate in the paraplegics after 30 minutes of active standing. During active standing, paraplegics’ heart rate increased by 18.2% (p = .015); during passive standing, it increased by 6% (p = .041). TPR in the tetraplegics significantly (p = .003) increased by 54% when compared with the paraplegics during passive standing. Overall, the tetraplegic group had a significantly lower systolic blood pressure (p = .013) and mean arterial pressure (p = .048) than the paraplegics during passive standing. These differences were not detected during active standing. When data were pooled from both groups and the overall groups response to active and passive standing were compared, the results showed that cardiac output, stroke volume, and blood pressure significantly decreased (p < .05) during 30 minutes of passive standing, whereas TPR significantly increased (p < .05). All of the hemodynamic variables were maintained during 30 minutes of active standing, and there were increases in RPP and heart rate after 30 minutes of active standing. CONCLUSION: FES of the lower extremity could be used by persons with SCI as an adjunct during standing to prevent orthostatic hypotension and circulatory hypokinesis. This effect may be more beneficial to those with tetraplegia who have a compromised autonomic nervous system and may not be able to adjust their hemodynamics to the change in position. Copyright 2001 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

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Cardiopulmonary response in spinal cord injury patients: effect of pneumatic compressive devices.

date: 03/01/1983
author: Huang CT, Kuhlemeier KV, Ratanaubol U, McEachran AB, DeVivo MJ, Fine PR.
publication: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1983 Mar;64(3):101-6.
pubmed_ID: 6830418

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an inflatable abdominal corset and bilateral pneumatic leg splints on certain physiologic parameters during and after postural change in 27 quadriplegic patients. Data reflecting respiratory rate, tidal volume, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were collected and analyzed. Measurements were acquired with patients in supine, 20 degrees head-up, 45 degrees head-up, and 20 degrees head-down positions. The study population was divided into 2 groups of cervical spinal cord injured patients: group I included 13 patients with C6 or C7 lesions; group II included 14 patients with C4 or C5 lesions. The mean time between injury and data collection was 47 days. Several trends were identified: (1) the neurologic level of lesion in quadriplegics appears relatively unimportant in determining cardiopulmonary response to postural change; (2) the use of assistive compressive devices does not improve pulmonary ventilatory parameters during postural change, although such devices do help maintain cardiovascular parameters; and (3) the abdominal corset appears more effective than pneumatic leg splints in maintaining blood pressure at pretilt levels. A tidal volume of 350ml to 400ml is most easily maintained by placing patients in a supine position and eschewing assistive compressive devices. Because the pneumatic devices proved successful in helping quadriplegic patients maintain cardiovascular stability during postural changes, therapeutic modalities, such as tilt table treatments, may be initiated at an earlier stage in the rehabilitation process.

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Changes in physical strain and physical capacity in men with spinal cord injuries.

date: 05/01/1996
author: Janssen TW, van Oers CA, Rozendaal EP, Willemsen EM, Hollander AP, van der Woude LH.
publication: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996 May;28(5):551-9.
pubmed_ID: 9148083

To determine longitudinal changes in physical capacity and physical strain during activities of daily living (ADL), 37 men with spinal cord injuries (C4/5-L5) performed an exercise test and various ADL on two occasions (T1 and T2; interval 34.5 +/- 1.5 months). Parameters of physical capacity were aerobic power (VO(2peak)) and maximal power output (PO(max)). Physical strain was estimated by the heart rate response relative to the heart rate reserve. VO(2peak) at T2 (1.75 +/- 0.55 1*min(1)) did not significantly differ from that at T1 (1.67 + 0.47 1*min(-1)). Absolute PO max improved (P < 0.05) from 64.9 +/- 25.9 (T1) to 71.7 +/- 27.2 W (T2), whereas relative PO(max) did not change. Activity level, time since injury, change in body mass, and occurrence of rehospitalization were the most important predictors of changes in physical capacity. Changes in relative VO(2peak) were related (P < 0.05) to changes in strain during transfers to the shower wheelchair (r = -0.39) and shower seat (r = -0.46), and during the curb ascent (r = -0.47). In conclusion, the hypothesized decline in physical capacity did not occur over the 3-yr period. Maintenance of physical capacity, which may in part be achieved through sport participation and improved medical care, together with avoidance of excessive body mass, may be useful to prevent high levels of strain during ADL.

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Cardiovascular responses to upright and supine exercise in humans after 6 weeks of head-down tilt (-6 degrees)

date: 11/01/2000
author: Sundblad P, Spaak J, Linnarsson D.
publication: Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000 Nov;83(4 -5):303-9.
pubmed_ID: 11138568

Seven healthy men performed steady-state dynamic leg exercise at 50 W in supine and upright postures, before (control) and repeatedly after 42 days of strict head-down tilt (HDT) (-6 degrees) bedrest. Steady-state heart rate (fc), mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output (Qc), and stroke volume (SV) were recorded. The following data changed significantly from control values. The fc was elevated in both postures at least until 12 days, but not at 32 days after bedrest. Immediately after HDT, SV and Qc were decreased by 25 (SEM 3)% and 19 (SEM 3)% in supine, and by 33 (SEM 5)% and 20 (SEM 3)% in upright postures, respectively. Within 2 days there was a partial recovery of SV in the upright but not in the supine posture. The SV and Qc during supine exercise remained significantly decreased for at least a month. Submaximal oxygen uptake did not change after HDT. We concluded that the cardiovascular response to exercise after prolonged bedrest was impaired for so long that it suggested that structural cardiac changes had developed during the HDT period.

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Physiologic responses to electrically assisted and frame-supported standing in persons with paraplegia.

date: 12/01/2003
author: Jacobs PL, Johnson B, Mahoney ET.
publication: J Spinal Cord Med. 2003 Winter;26(4):384-9.
pubmed_ID: 14992341

BACKGROUND: Systems of functional electrical stimulation (FES) have been demonstrated to enable some persons with paraplegia to stand and ambulate limited distances. However, the energy costs and acute physiologic responses associated with FES standing activities have not been well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To compare the physiologic responses of persons with paraplegia to active FES-assisted standing (AS) and frame-supported passive standing (PS). METHODS: Fifteen persons with paraplegia (T6-T11) previously habituated to FES ambulation, completed physiologic testing of PS and AS. The AS assessments were performed using a commercial FES system (Parastep-1; Altimed, Fresno, Calif); the PS tests used a commercial standing frame (Easy Stand 5000; Altimed, Fresno, Calif). Participants also performed a peak arm-cranking exercise (ACE) test using a progressive graded protocol in 3-minute stages and 10-watt power output increments to exhaustion. During all assessments, metabolic activity and heart rate (HR) were measured via open-circuit spirometry and 12-lead electrocardiography, respectively. Absolute physiologic responses to PS and AS were averaged over 1-minute periods at 5-minute intervals (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes) and adjusted relative to peak values displayed during ACE to determine percentage of peak (%pk) values. Absolute and relative responses were compared between test conditions (AS and PS) and across time using two-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The AS produced significantly greater values of VO2 (43%pk) than did PS (20%pk). The mean HR responses to PS (100-102 beats per minute [bpm] throughout) were significantly lower than during AS, which ranged from 108 bpm at 5 minutes to 132 bpm at test termination. CONCLUSION: Standing with FES requires significantly more energy than does AS and may provide a cardiorespiratory stress sufficient to meet minimal requirements for exercise conditioning.