author: Gudjonsdottir, Bjorg MS/PT, Vicki Stemmons Mercer, PhD, PT
publication: Pediatric Physical Therapy 2002;14:38-46.
PURPOSE: in this case series, we examined how two types of prone standers affected bone material density and behavioral variables in four children of preschool age with severe cerebral palsy. METHODS: In phase one, four children of preschool age participated in an eight-week standing program, standing for 30 minutes a day, five days a week. Two children stood in a conventional stander, and two stood in a new type of motorized (dynamic) stander that provides intermittent weight bearing. Measurements of bone material density before and after the program revealed increases in bone material density in both children who used a dynamic stander and one child who used a static stander. In phase two, all four subjects stood in both types of stander during three separate test sessions. RESULT: Measures of behavioral variables, including behavioral state, reactivity, goal directedness, and attention span, indicated little or no effect of type of stander on behavior. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest there is potential value in additional research concerning the effects of static and dynamic standers on bone material density and behavior in children with cerebral palsy.
author: Trudel G, Uhthoff HK.
publication: Arch Phys Med Rehabilitation. 2000 Jan;81(1):6-13.
OBJECTIVES: To measure articular structures’ contribution to the limitation of range of motion after joint immobility. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental, controlled study involving 40 adult rats that had one knee joint immobilized in flexion for durations of 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks; 20 rats underwent a sham procedure. The angular displacement was measured both in flexion and extension at three different torques. Myotomy of transarticular muscles allowed isolation of the arthrogenic component of the contracture. RESULTS: A contracture developed in all immobilized knees. The articular structures were incrementally responsible for the limitation in range of motion (from 12.6 degrees +/-6.7 degrees at 2 weeks to 51.4 degrees +/-5.4 degrees at 32 weeks). The myogenic restriction proportionately decreased over time (from 20.1 degrees +/-8.4 degrees at 2 weeks to only 0.8 degrees +/-7.2 degrees at 32 weeks). The increase in the arthrogenic component of contracture was predominant in extension. CONCLUSION: This study quantified the increasing role of arthrogenic changes in limiting the range of motion of joints after immobility, especially as the period of immobility extended past 2 weeks. These data provide a better understanding of joint contracture development and can be used to guide therapeutic approaches.
author: Rubin CT, Lanyon LE.
publication: Calcif Tissue Int. 1985 Jul;37(4):411-7.
The in vivo remodeling behavior within a bone protected from natural loading was modified over an 8-week period by daily application of 100 consecutive 1 Hz load cycles engendering strains within the bone tissue of physiological rate and magnitude. This load regime resulted in a graded dose:response relationship between the peak strain magnitude and change in the mass of bone tissue present. Peak longitudinal strains below 0.001 were associated with bone loss which was achieved by increased remodeling activity, endosteal resorption, and increased intra-cortical porosis. Peak strains above 0.001 were associated with little change in intra-cortical remodeling activity but substantial periosteal and endosteal new bone formation.
author: Motloch WM, Brearley MN.
publication: Prosthet Orthot Int. 1983 Dec;7(3):176-7.
A self-propelled mobile standing device is described with the facility of patient-operated inclination of the support platform, enabling objects on the floor to be reached. The device is provided with a removable tray at the level of the occupant’s chest.
author: Walter JS, Sola PG, Sacks J, Lucero Y, Langbein E, Weaver F.
publication: J Spinal Cord Med. 1999 Fall;22(3):152-8.
Additional analyses were conducted on a recently published survey of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) who used standing mobility devices. Frequency and duration of standing were examined in relation to outcomes using chi square analyses. Respondents (n = 99) who stood 30 minutes or more per day had significantly improved quality of life, fewer bed sores, fewer bladder infections, improved bowel regularity, and improved ability to straighten their legs compared with those who stood less time. Compliance with regular home standing (at least once per week) was high (74%). The data also suggest that individuals with SCI could benefit from standing even if they were to begin several years after injury. The observation of patient benefits and high compliance rates suggest that mobile standing devices should be more strongly considered as a major intervention for relief from secondary medical complications and improvement in overall quality of life of individuals with SCI.
author: Odeen I, Knutsson E.
publication: Scand J Rehabilitation Medicine. 1981;13(4):117-21.
Clinical observations on patients with spastic paraplegia have indicated that a training regime including weight load on the lower limbs may reduce the muscular hypertonus. Due to the spontaneous fluctuations and great variability in muscle tone it is difficult to judge from clinical findings how the effects may be related to muscle stretch and weight load. Therefore, quantitative determination of the effects on muscle tone by stretch and loading was made in 9 paraplegic patients. Muscle tone was measured before and after 30 min of stretch or weight load in 8 sessions on 4 consecutive days. Stretch was obtained by bracing the foot in maximal dorsal flexion with patient in supine position. For weight load on the lower limbs, the patient stood on a tilt-table at an angle of 85 degrees with feet in 15 degrees dorsal or plantar flexion. Resistance to passive movements was determined during a series of sinusoidal ankle joint movements at three different speeds. After weight load in standing with the feet in dorsal or plantar flexion, the average reduction was 32 and 26%, respectively. After stretch in supine, the average reduction was 17%. Thus, the three procedures tested all resulted in reduction of muscle tone. The largest reductions were obtained by weight load with stretch imposed upon the calf muscles.
author: Cullen DM, Smith RT, Akhter MP.
publication: J Appl Physiol. 2001 Nov;91(5):1971-6.
Mechanical loading stimulates bone formation and regulates bone size, shape, and strength. It is recognized that strain magnitude, strain rate, and frequency are variables that explain bone stimulation. Early loading studies have shown that a low number (36) of cycles/day (cyc) induced maximal bone formation when strains were high (2,000 microepsilon) (Rubin CT and Lanyon LE. J Bone Joint Surg Am 66: 397-402, 1984). This study examines whether cycle number directly affects the bone response to loading and whether cycle number for activation of formation varies with load magnitude at low frequency. The adult rat tibiae were loaded in four-point bending at 25 (-800 microepsilon) or 30 N (-1,000 microepsilon) for 0, 40, 120, or 400 cyc at 2 Hz for 3 wk. Differences in periosteal and endocortical formation were examined by histomorphometry. Loading did not stimulate bone formation at 40 cyc. Compared with control tibiae, tibiae loaded at -800 microepsilon showed 2.8-fold greater periosteal bone formation rate at 400 cyc but no differences in endocortical formation. Tibiae loaded at -1,000 microepsilon and 120 or 400 cyc had 8- to 10-fold greater periosteal formation rate, 2- to 3-fold greater formation surface, and 1-fold greater endocortical formation surface than control. As applied load or strain magnitude decreased, the number of cyc required for activation of formation increased. We conclude that, at constant frequency, the number of cyc required to activate formation is dependent on strain and that, as number of cyc increases, the bone response increases.
author: Trudel G, Uhthoff HK, Brown M.
publication: Arch Phys Med Rehabilitation. 1999 Dec;80(12):1542-7.
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypotheses that contractures progress at different rates in relation to the time after immobilization, that immobilization in flexion leads to loss of extension range of motion, and that joints of sham-operated animals are better controls than the contralateral joint of experimental animals. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental, controlled study in which 40 adult rats had one knee joint immobilized at 135 degrees of flexion for up to 32 weeks and 20 animals underwent a sham procedure. At intervals of 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks, 8 experimental and 4 sham-operated animals were killed and their knee motion measured in flexion and extension. RESULTS: In the experimental group, the range of motion decreased in the first 16 weeks of immobility at an average rate of 3.8 degrees per week (p<.0001) to reach 61.1 degrees of restriction. A plateau was then observed from which the contracture did not progress further. The loss in range of motion occurred in extension, not in flexion. CONCLUSION: This study defined an acute stage of contractures starting at the onset of immobility and lasting 16 weeks, during which the range of motion was progressively restricted, and a chronic stage during which no additional limitation was detected. The loss in motion was attributed to posterior knee structures not under tension during immobilization in flexion. Contrary to the hypothesis, the contralateral joint was validated as a control choice for range-of-motion experiments.
author: Bohannon RW
publication: Arch Physical Medicine Rehabilitation. 1993 Oct;74(10):1121-2.
A patient with a T12 spinal cord injury and intractable extensor spasms of the lower extremities participated in tilt table standing trial on 5 nonconsecutive days to determine if the intervention would affect his spasticity and spasms. Each day’s standing trial was followed by an immediate reduction in lower extremity spasticity (measured using the modified Ashworth scale and pendulum testing). Standing was also accompanied by a reduction in spasms that lasted until the following morning. The reduction of spasms was particularly advantageous to the performance of car transfers. Tilt table standing merits further examination as a physical treatment of spasms that accompany central nervous system lesions.