The effect of posture on bladder pressure

date:1955 Sep 28;129(3):448-53.
author: Gould DW.
publication: J Physiol.
PubMed ID:13264108



no abstract

A systematic review of supported standing programs

date: 2010;3(3):197-213. doi: 10.3233/PRM-2010-0129.
author: Glickman LB1, Geigle PR, Paleg GS.
publication: J Pediatr Rehabil Med.


The routine clinical use of supported standing in hospitals, schools and homes currently exists. Questions arise as to the nature of the evidence used to justify this practice. This systematic review investigated the available evidence underlying supported standing use based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) Levels of Evidence framework.


The database search included MEDLINE, CINAHL, GoogleScholar, HighWire Press, PEDro, Cochrane Library databases, and APTAs Hooked on Evidence from January 1980 to October 2009 for studies that included supported standing devices for individuals of all ages, with a neuromuscular diagnosis. We identified 112 unique studies from which 39 met the inclusion criteria, 29 with adult and 10 with pediatric participants. In each group of studies were user and therapist survey responses in addition to results of clinical interventions.


The results are organized and reported by The International Classification of Function (ICF) framework in the following categories: b4: Functions of the cardiovascular, haematological, immunological, and respiratory systems; b5: Functions of the digestive, metabolic, and endocrine systems; b7: Neuromusculoskeletal and movement related functions; Combination of d4: Mobility, d8: Major life areas and Other activity and participation. The peer review journal studies mainly explored using supported standers for improving bone mineral density (BMD), cardiopulmonary function, muscle strength/function, and range of motion (ROM). The data were moderately strong for the use of supported standing for BMD increase, showed some support for decreasing hypertonicity (including spasticity) and improving ROM, and were inconclusive for other benefits of using supported standers for children and adults with neuromuscular disorders. The addition of whole body vibration (WBV) to supported standing activities appeared a promising trend but empirical data were inconclusive. The survey data from physical therapists (PTs) and participant users attributed numerous improved outcomes to supported standing: ROM, bowel/bladder, psychological, hypertonicity and pressure relief/bedsores. BMD was not a reported benefit according to the user group.


There exists a need for empirical mechanistic evidence to guide clinical supported standing programs across practice settings and with various-aged participants, particularly when considering a life-span approach to practice.

Monitoring standing wheelchair use after spinal cord injury: a case report.

date: 02/04/2005
author: Shields RK, Dudley-Javoroski S.
publication: Disabil Rehabil. 2005 Feb 4;27(3):142-6.
pubmed_ID: 15823996

PURPOSE: An important issue in spinal cord injury (SCI) research is whether standing can yield positive health benefits. However, quantifying dose of standing and establishing subject compliance with a standing protocol is difficult. This case report describes a method to monitor dose of standing outside the laboratory, describes the standing patterns of one subject, and describes this subject’s satisfaction with the standing protocol. METHOD: A man with T-10 complete paraplegia agreed to have his commercially available standing wheelchair instrumented with a custom-designed logging device for a 2-year period. The micro-controller-based logger, under custom software control, was mounted to the standing wheelchair. The logger recorded date, duration, angle of standing, and start/stop times. RESULTS: The client exceeded a suggested minimum dosage of standing per month (130.4% of goal), choosing to stand for short bouts (mean = 11.57 min) at an average angle of 61 degrees, on an average 3.86 days per calendar week. He was generally very satisfied with the standing device and provided subjective reports of improved spasticity and bowel motility. CONCLUSION: This case report describes a standing and surveillance system that allow quantification of standing dose. Future controlled studies are needed to evaluate whether standing can be beneficially affect secondary complications after SCI.

Indications for a home standing program for individuals with spinal cord injury.

date: 09/01/1999
author: Walter JS, Sola PG, Sacks J, Lucero Y, Langbein E, Weaver F.
publication: J Spinal Cord Med. 1999 Fall;22(3):152-8.
pubmed_ID: 10685379

Additional analyses were conducted on a recently published survey of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) who used standing mobility devices. Frequency and duration of standing were examined in relation to outcomes using chi square analyses. Respondents (n = 99) who stood 30 minutes or more per day had significantly improved quality of life, fewer bed sores, fewer bladder infections, improved bowel regularity, and improved ability to straighten their legs compared with those who stood less time. Compliance with regular home standing (at least once per week) was high (74%). The data also suggest that individuals with SCI could benefit from standing even if they were to begin several years after injury. The observation of patient benefits and high compliance rates suggest that mobile standing devices should be more strongly considered as a major intervention for relief from secondary medical complications and improvement in overall quality of life of individuals with SCI.