This article describes the use of a trochanteric girdle on a child with acetabular dysplasia to prevent hip displacement during weight-bearing. The patient was a boy 12 years of age with hypotonic athetosis and such severe acetabular dysplasia that his hips dislocated laterally with the slightest adduction beyond neutral. The patient’s hips subluxated proximally with weight-bearing or joint compression with only 20 degrees of abduction.
Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme.
In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9-16 years of age.
Of the 212 children, 38 (18%) developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP) >40% and further 19 (9%) MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40%) was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V.
Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2-3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip surveillance programme for children with CP with radiographic examinations based on the child‘s age and GMFCS level.
To investigate the effects of a standing program on the range of motion (ROM) of hip abduction in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.
The participants were 13 children, Gross Motor Functional Classification System level III, who received physical therapy and a daily standing program using a custom-fabricated stander from 12 to 14 months of age to the age of 5 years. Hip abduction ROM was goniometrically assessed at baseline and at 5 years.
Baseline hip abduction was 42° at baseline and 43° at 5 years.
This small difference was not clinically significant, but did demonstrate that it was possible to maintain hip abduction ROM in the spastic adductor muscles of children with cerebral palsy with a daily standing program during the children‘s first 5 years of development.
Effects of the standing program with hip abduction on hip acetabular development in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy.
Early identification and intervention with conservative measures is important to help manage hip dysplasia in children with a high adductor and iliopsoas tone and delay in weight bearing. The effect of a daily standing program with hip abduction on hip acetabular development in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy was studied.
The participants were 26 children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy (CP), classified at Level III according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Thirteen children stood with hip abduction at least 1 h daily from 12 to 14 months of age to 5 years with an individually fabricated standing frame with hip abduction.
At the age of 5 years, radiologic results of the study group were compared with a comparison group of 13 children with spastic diplegia CP who had not taken part in a standing program. The migration percentage in all children who stood with abduction remained within stable limits (13-23%) at 5 years of age, in comparison to children who did not stand in abduction (12-47%) (p < 0.01).
The results indicate that a daily standing program with hip abduction in the first 5 years may enhance acetabular development in ambulatory children with spastic diplegia CP. Implications for Rehabilitation Abnormal acetabular development is a problem related to mobility problems and spasticity muscles around the hip. The literature suggests that postural management and standing programs could reduce levels of hip subluxation and increase function in children with cerebral palsy. A standing program with hip abduction can be a beneficial to develop more stable hips in children with spastic diplegic GMFCS level III.
Effect of weight-bearing in abduction and extension on hip stability in children with cerebral palsy.
: To study the effect of 1 year of daily, straddled weight-bearing on hip migration percentage (MP) and muscle length in children with cerebral palsy who were nonambulatory.
: Participants stood upright in maximum tolerated hip abduction and hip and knee extension ½ to 1½ hours per day for 1 year. Controls, matched for age, motor ability, and surgery, were derived from a national cerebral palsy follow-up program.
: Participants using straddled weight-bearing after surgery had the largest decrease in MP (n = 3, 20 controls; P = .026). Children using straddled weight-bearing at least 1 hour per day for prevention also improved (n = 8, 63 controls; P = .029). Hip and knee contractures were found only in controls.
: Straddled weight-bearing, 1 hour per day, may reduce the MP after adductor-iliopsoas-tenotomies or prevent an MP increase and preserve muscle length in children with cerebral palsy who did not need surgery. Larger studies are needed to confirm the results.
author: Pountney T, Mandy A, Green E, Gard P.
publication: Child Care Health Dev. 2002 Mar;28(2):179-85.
BACKGROUND: Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy has a well-documented history and morbidity. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a retrospective study of children with bilateral cerebral palsy who had various postural management and its effect on hip deformity. The most widely accepted theoretical model of hip subluxation/dislocation is that an imbalance in muscle length and strength around the hip leads to acetabular dysplasia and consequent hip subluxation. Maintenance of muscle length and strength and loadbearing is therefore a logical prevention. Research on normal infants’ postures has provided biomechanical data to form the theoretical basis of 24 h postural management equipment. METHODS: The notes and X-rays of 59 children with bilateral cerebral palsy from East and West Sussex and Oxfordshire were examined and measured to determine whether a relationship existed between postural management and the level of hip subluxation/dislocation. X-rays were measured using Reimers’ hip migration percentage. Postural management support was divided into three groups for analysis. Category 1: use of a 24-h postural management approach using Chailey Adjustable Postural Support (CAPS) systems in lying, sitting and standing; category 2: two items of CAPS (either lying/sitting or sitting/standing supports); category 3: use of the CAPS seat only and/or any other postural supports. Hip status was recorded for analysis as both hips safe (under 33% migrated), or one/both hips subluxed. RESULTS: Children using ‘All CAPS’ before hip subluxation maintained significantly more hip integrity than other groups (chi2 P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Postural management interventions have an important role in the prevention of hip dysplasia.
Prevention of severe contractures might replace multilevel surgery in cerebral palsy: results of a population-based health care programme and new techniques to reduce spasticity.
author: Hägglund G, Andersson S, Düppe H, Lauge-Pedersen H, Nordmark E, Westbom L
publication: J Pediatr Orthop B. 2005 Jul;14(4):269-73.
During the 1990s three new techniques to reduce spasticity and dystonia in children with cerebral palsy (CP) were introduced in southern Sweden: selective dorsal rhizotomy, continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion and botulinum toxin treatment. In 1994 a CP register and a health care programme, aimed to prevent hip dislocation and severe contractures, were initiated in the area. The total population of children with CP born 1990-1991, 1992-1993 and 1994-1995 was evaluated and compared at 8 years of age. In non-ambulant children the passive range of motion in hip, knee and ankle improved significantly from the first to the later age groups. Ambulant children had similar range of motion in the three age groups, with almost no severe contractures. The proportion of children treated with orthopaedic surgery for contracture or skeletal torsion deformity decreased from 40 to 15% (P = 0.0019). One-fifth of the children with spastic diplegia had been treated with selective dorsal rhizotomy. One-third of the children born 1994-1995 had been treated with botulinum toxin before 8 years of age. With early treatment of spasticity, early non-operative treatment of contracture and prevention of hip dislocation, the need for orthopaedic surgery for contracture or torsion deformity is reduced, and the need for multilevel procedures seems to be eliminated.