author: Helin I, Landin LA, Nilsson BE.
publication: Acta Paediatr Scand. 1985 Mar;74(2):264-7.
Using photon absorptiometry the forearm bone mineral content (BMC) was determined in 75 children aged 4 to 16, who all had a low birth weight. Forty-five of them were born preterm AGA (27 boys, 18 girls, mean weight 1 580 g; range 920-2 060 g) and 30 preterm SGA (17 boys, 13 girls, mean weight 1510; range 940-2130 g). The results were compared with a control group of children of the same age, and analyses of covariance with age, height and weight as the covariant factors were performed. The BMC, weight and height did not differ between the children born AGA or SGA. Irrespective of AGA or SGA, the BMC was significantly decreased in boys but the difference was less pronounced and less significant when height and weight were used as covariant factors. Boys who had been born preterm had a less BMC than the control boys for their age but they were also somewhat shorter and lighter than expected with regard to their age.
author: Henderson RC.
publication: Dev Med Child Neurol. 1997 Apr;39(4):224-7.
Forty-three patients with spastic quadriplegia (mean age 7.9 years, range 3.3 to 17.2 years) underwent bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of the lumbar spine and were evaluated between 2.6 and 5.5 years (mean 3.8) later to determine whether this measurement had predicted risk of fracture over the subsequent period of observation. Other potential risk factors that were evaluated include body weight z score, serum vitamin D levels, previous fracture, and hip spica casting. The baseline measurements showed that BMD falls further below normal with increasing age and was more than one standard deviation below age-matched normal mean in 38 of the 43 patients. Fracture rate did not differ between those with low and those with very low spinal BMD. Similarly, serum vitamin D levels and body weight z scores were not predictive of fracture. However, fracture rate was over fourfold greater following spica casting and more than threefold greater following an initial fracture. Fracture rates in the study group were similar to those reported for age- and sex-matched normal children, though generally the location of the fractures and mechanisms of injury differed.
author: Henderson RC, Lark RK, Kecskemethy HH, Miller F, Harcke HT, Bachrach SJ.
publication: J Pediatr. 2002 Nov;141(5):644-51.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial the safety and efficacy of intravenous pamidronate to treat osteopenia in nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy. STUDY DESIGN: Six pairs of subjects generally matched within each pair for age, sex, and race completed the protocol. One member of each pair randomly received plain saline placebo, the other pamidronate. Drug/placebo was administered intravenously daily for 3 consecutive days, and this 3-day dosing session was repeated at 3-month intervals for one year. Evaluations were continued for 6 months after the year of treatment. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the distal femur, a site specifically developed for use in this contracted population, and the lumbar spine. RESULTS: In the metaphyseal region of the distal femur, BMD increased 89% +/- 21% (mean +/- SEM) over the 18-month study period in the pamidronate group compared with 9% +/- 6% in the control group. Age-normalized z scores increased from -4.0 +/- 0.6 to -1.8 +/- 1.0 in the pamidronate group and did not significantly change in the control group (-4.2 +/- 0.3 to -4.0 +/- 0.3). The first dosing with pamidronate caused a transient drop in serum calcium that was asymptomatic and not treated. No other potentially adverse effects were noted. CONCLUSIONS: In this small controlled clinical trial, pamidronate was found to be a safe and very effective agent to increase BMD in nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy.
author: Kunkel CF, Scremin AM, Eisenberg B, Garcia JF, Roberts S, Martinez S.
publication: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1993 Jan;74(1):73-8.
The effect of “standing” in a frame on spasticity (clinical assessment and H-reflex), contracture (lower extremity joint range of motion), and osteoporosis (dual photon absorptiometry) was studied in six paralyzed males (mean age 49 yr) who had been confined to wheelchairs for an average of 19 years. Standing time averaged 144 hours over a mean of 135 days. Clinical Assessment measured reflexes, tone, and clonus in the legs. Results revealed no important differences between initial and final scores for clinical assessment and joint range of motion. In three subjects for whom H-reflexes were found, latency and amplitude were not altered by “standing.” Bone density was normal in the lumbar spine but significantly reduced in the femoral neck. “Standing” did not modify the bone density in any site. A follow-up interview revealed that 67% of subjects continued to “stand” and felt healthier because of it. In summary, “standing” had no ill effects, did not alter measured variables, and had a positive psychological impact.
author: Larson CM, Henderson RC.
publication: J Pediatr Orthop. 2000 Jan-Feb;20(1):71-4.
The relationships between bone density, mobility, and fractures were assessed in 41 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Bone density in the lumbar spine was only slightly decreased while the boys were ambulatory (mean z-score, -0.8), but significantly decreased with loss of ambulation (mean z-score, -1.7). In contrast, bone density in the proximal femur was profoundly diminished even when gait was minimally affected (mean z-score, -1.6), and then progressively decreased to nearly 4 standard deviations below age-matched normals (mean z-score, -3.9). These are consistent with the findings that 18 (44%) of the boys sustained a fracture, 66% of these fractures involved the lower extremities, and there were no spinal compression fractures. Furthermore, four (44%) of nine boys who were walking with aids or support at the time of fracture never resumed walking after the fracture. Osteoporosis is most profound in the lower extremities of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and begins to develop early while still ambulating. Frequent fractures that may result in loss of ambulation are the clinical consequences.
author: Kaplan PE, Gandhavadi B, Richards L, Goldschmidt J.
publication: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1978 Oct;59(10):447-50.
Calcium metabolic balance determinations, which have been done in various clinical and experimental conditions, were applied to the study of 8 spinal cord injured patients receiving a diet with 1600 mg calcium and 85 to 120 gm protein daily. All of the patients had hypercalciuria prior to ambulation. Those with spinal cord injuries of less than 3 months duration (early group) had a calcium balance of -27 mg before ambulation and 235 mg after ambulation. Patients with spinal cord injuries of 6 months or more duration (late group) had calcium balances of 55 mg before ambulation and 175 mg after ambulation. Ambulation significantly decreased the hypercalciuria and modified the calcium balance in a positive direction. Smaller changes were noted in the responses of the late group than in those of the early group. Early ambulation will probably prevent bone loss, calcium stones in the genitourinary tract, and other sequellae of negative calcium balance.
author: Chad KE, Bailey DA, McKay HA, Zello GA, Snyder RE.
publication: J Pediatr 1999 Jul;135(1):115-7.
After an 8-month physical activity intervention in children with cerebral palsy, increases in femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC) (9.6%), volumetric bone mineral density (v BMD) (5.6%), and total proximal femur BMC (11.5%) were observed in the intervention group (n = 9) compared with control subjects (n = 9; femoral neck BMC, -5. 8%; v BMD, -6.3%; total proximal femur BMC, 3.5%).
? Clinical Trial
? Randomized Controlled Trial
author: Goemaere S, Van Laere M, De Neve P, Kaufman JM.
publication: Osteoporos Int. 1994 May;4(3):138-43.
Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine (L3, L4), the proximal femur and the femoral shaft, and by single-photon absorptiometry at the forearm in 53 patients with complete traumatic paraplegia of at least 1 year’s duration and in age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The patients did (n = 38) or did not (n = 15) regularly perform passive weightbearing standing with the aid of a standing device. Compared with the controls, the BMD of paraplegic patients was preserved in the lumbar spine and was markedly decreased in the proximal femur (33%) and the femoral shaft (25%). When considering all patients performing standing, they had a better-preserved BMD at the femoral shaft (p = 0.009), but not at the proximal femur, than patients not performing standing. BMD at the lumbar spine (L3, L4) was marginally higher in the standing group (significant only for L3; p = 0.040). A subgroup of patients performing standing with use of long leg braces had a significantly higher BMD at the proximal femur than patients using a standing frame or a standing wheelchair (p = 0.030). The present results suggest that passive mechanical loading can have a beneficial effect on the preservation of bone mass in osteoporosis found in paraplegics.
author: Martin AD, Houston CS.
publication: CMAJ. 1987 Mar 15;136(6):587-93.
Sales of calcium supplements have increased dramatically since 1983, as middle-aged women seek to prevent or treat bone loss due to osteoporosis. However, epidemiologic studies have failed to support the hypothesis that larger amounts of calcium are associated with increased bone density or a decreased incidence of fractures. The authors examine the evidence from controlled trials on the effects of calcium supplementation and physical activity on bone loss and find that weight-bearing activity, if undertaken early in life and on a regular basis, can increase the peak bone mass of early adulthood, delay the onset of bone loss and reduce the rate of loss. All of these factors will delay the onset of fractures. Carefully planned and supervised physical activity programs can also provide a safe, effective therapy for people who have osteoporosis.
author: Dalsky GP, Stocke KS, Ehsani AA, Slatopolsky E, Lee WC, Birge SJ.
publication: Ann Intern Med. 1988 Jun;108(6):824-8.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weight-bearing exercise training and subsequent detraining on lumbar bone mineral content in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Non-randomized, controlled, short-term (9 months) trial and long-term (22 months) exercise training and detraining (13 months). SETTING: Section of applied physiology at a university school of medicine. PATIENTS: Thirty-five healthy, sedentary postmenopausal women, 55 to 70 years old. All women completed the study. There was 90% compliance with exercise training. INTERVENTIONS: All women were given calcium, 1500 mg daily. The exercise group did weight-bearing exercise (walking, jogging, stair climbing) at 70% to 90% of maximal oxygen uptake capacity for 50 to 60 min, 3 times weekly. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Bone mineral content increased 5.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0% to 8.4%; P = 0.0037) above baseline after short-term training whereas there was no change (-1.4%) in the control group. After 22 months of exercise, bone mineral content was 6.1% (95% CI, 3.9% to 8.3% above baseline; P = 0.0001) in the long-term training group. After 13 months of decreased activity, bone mass was 1.1% above baseline in the detraining group. CONCLUSIONS: Weight-bearing exercise led to significant increases above baseline in bone mineral content which were maintained with continued training in older, postmenopausal women. With reduced weight-bearing exercise, bone mass reverted to baseline levels. Further studies are needed to determine the threshold exercise prescription that will produce significant increases in bone mass.