author: Binkley T, Johnson J, Vogel L, Kecskemethy H, Henderson R, Specker B.
publication: J Pediatr. 2005 Dec;147(6):791-6.
OBJECTIVE: To use peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to determine bone measurements in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) age 3 to 20 years and compare them with control subjects. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 13 (5 male) patients with CP, along with 2 sex- and age-matched controls for each, were included in a mixed-model analysis with matched pairs as random effects for pQCT bone measurements of the 20% distal tibia. RESULTS: Tibia length was similar in the CP and control groups (P = .57). Weight was marginally higher in the control group (P = .06). Cortical bone mineral content (BMC), area, thickness, polar strength-strain index (pSSI), and periosteal and endosteal circumferences were greater in the control group (P < .05 for all). Relationships between bone measurements and weight showed that cortical BMC, area, periosteal circumference, and pSSI were greater at higher weights in the control group (group-by-weight interaction, P < .05 for all). Cortical thickness was greater in the control group and was correlated with weight. Cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) was greater with higher weights in the CP group (group-by-weight interaction, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Bone strength, as indicated by pSSI, is compromised in children with CP due to smaller and thinner bones, not due to lower cortical bone density.
author: Henderson RC, Kairalla JA, Barrington JW, Abbas A, Stevenson RD.
publication: J Pediatr. 2005 Jun;146(6):769-75
OBJECTIVE: To assess the natural history of “growth” in bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with moderate to severe cerebral palsy (CP). STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal, observational study of BMD in 69 subjects with moderate to severe spastic CP ages 2.0 to 17.7 years. Fifty-five subjects were observed for more than 2 years and 40 subjects for more than 3 years. Each evaluation also included assessments of growth, nutritional status, Tanner stage, general health, and various clinical features of CP. RESULTS: Lower BMD z-scores at the initial evaluation were associated with greater severity of CP as judged by gross motor function and feeding difficulty, and with poorer growth and nutrition as judged by weight z-scores. BMD increased an average of 2% to 5%/y in the distal femur and lumbar spine, but ranged widely from +42%/y to -31%. In spite of increases in BMD, distal femur BMD z-scores decrease with age in this population. CONCLUSIONS: Children with severe CP develop over the course of their lives clinically significant osteopenia. Unlike elderly adults, this is not primarily from true losses in bone mineral, but from a rate of growth in bone mineral that is diminished relative to healthy children. The efficacy of interventions to increase BMD can truly be assessed only with a clear understanding of the expected changes in BMD without intervention.
author: Tasdemir HA, Buyukavci M, Akcay F, Polat P, Yildiran A, Karakelleoglu C.
publication: Pediatr Int. 2001 Apr;43(2):157-60.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of and factors related to osteopenia in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Bone mineral density (BMD), calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25OHD3) concentrations were determined in 24 children with CP (15 ambulant, nine non-ambulant), aged between 10 months and 12 years (mean (+/-SD) 4.1+/-2.9 years). These vaules were compared with data obtained from a control group. RESULTS: Adjusted mean BMD values were lower in the patient group than in controls (P<0.05). However, there was no difference between BMD values of ambulant and non-ambulant patients. The Ca and P levels of the patient group were significantly higher than those of controls (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that BMD was decreased in all children with CP, but to a greater extent in non-ambulant children with CP, and immobilization is the major effective factor on bone mineralization.
author: Wilmshurst S, Ward K, Adams JE, Langton CM, Mughal MZ.
publication: Arch Dis Child. 1996 Aug;75(2):164-5.
The spinal bone mineral density (SBMD) and calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) was measured in 27 children with cerebral palsy. They were categorised into four mobility groups: mobile with an abnormal gait, mobile with assistance, non-mobile but weight bearing, non-mobile or weight bearing. Mean SD scores for BUA and SBMD differed among mobility groups (analysis of variance, p < 0.001 and p = 0.078, respectively).
author: Tremblay F, Malouin F, Richards CL, Dumas F.
publication: Scand J Rehabilitation Medicine. 1990;22(4):171-80.
We studied the short term effects of a single session of prolonged muscle stretch (PMS) on reflex and voluntary muscle activations in 22 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) assigned to an experimental (n = 12) and a control group (n = 10). Children of the experimental group underwent PMS of the triceps surae (TS) by standing with the feet dorsiflexed on a tilt-table for 30 min, whereas children of the control group were kept at rest. The effects were determined by measuring the associated changes in torque and in electromyographic (EMG) activity of the TS and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles during both passive ankle movements and maximal static voluntary contractions. The results indicate that PMS led to reduced spasticity in ankle muscles as demonstrated by the significant reductions (p less than 0.05) of the neuromuscular responses (torque and EMG) to passive movement. These inhibitory effects lasted up to 35 min after cessation of PMS. In addition, the capacity to voluntarily activate the plantar flexors was significantly (p less than 0.05) increased post-PMS, but the capacity to activate the dorsiflexors was apparently not affected. These findings suggest that repeated sessions of PMS may have beneficial effects in the management of spasticity in children with CP.
author: Manley MT, Gurtowski J.
publication: Arch Phys Med Rehabilitation. 1985 Oct;66(10):717-20.
The vertical wheeler is a new mobility aid that was specifically designed to help improve the quality of life for the handicapped child by providing mobility while standing. Results of a clinical trial in a population of patients with cerebral palsy are presented. Criteria were selected to allow evaluation of the rehabilitative effect of the device on the population. Results showed that the children in this cerebral palsy group all benefited from ambulation with the wheeler. Patients with spastic quadriparesis seemed to gain the most immediate benefit. The device contributed to improved mobility, posture, and self-image. The wheeler was safe and fun for the children. It has the potential for improving the psychologic and medical status of the child with severe locomotion impairment.
author: Gudjonsdottir, Bjorg MS/PT, Vicki Stemmons Mercer, PhD, PT
publication: Pediatric Physical Therapy 2002;14:38-46.
PURPOSE: in this case series, we examined how two types of prone standers affected bone material density and behavioral variables in four children of preschool age with severe cerebral palsy. METHODS: In phase one, four children of preschool age participated in an eight-week standing program, standing for 30 minutes a day, five days a week. Two children stood in a conventional stander, and two stood in a new type of motorized (dynamic) stander that provides intermittent weight bearing. Measurements of bone material density before and after the program revealed increases in bone material density in both children who used a dynamic stander and one child who used a static stander. In phase two, all four subjects stood in both types of stander during three separate test sessions. RESULT: Measures of behavioral variables, including behavioral state, reactivity, goal directedness, and attention span, indicated little or no effect of type of stander on behavior. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest there is potential value in additional research concerning the effects of static and dynamic standers on bone material density and behavior in children with cerebral palsy.
author: Stuberg WA.
publication: Phys Ther. 1992 Jan;72(1):35-40.
Standing is a common modality used in the management of children with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this article is to examine the scientific basis for standing programs, with specific emphasis on the known effects of weight bearing on bone development. Guidelines for the use of standing programs are presented, and the supporting rationale is discussed.