date: 2013 Fall;25(3):232-47
author: Paleg GS, Smith BA, Glickman LB.
publication: Pediatr Phys Ther.
PubMed ID: 23797394
There is a lack of evidence-based recommendations for effective dosing of pediatric supported standing programs, despite widespread clinical use.
Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (Child and Youth Version) framework, we searched 7 databases, using specific search terms.
Thirty of 687 studies located met our inclusion criteria. Strength of the evidence was evaluated by well-known tools, and to assist with clinical decision-making, clinical recommendations based on the existing evidence and the authors’ opinions were provided.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE:
Standing programs 5 days per week positively affect bone mineral density (60 to 90 min/d); hip stability (60 min/d in 30° to 60° of total bilateral hip abduction); range of motion of hip, knee, and ankle (45 to 60 min/d); and spasticity (30 to 45 min/d).
date: 17 November 2015.
author: Paleg G., Livingstone R.
publication: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
PubMed ID: 26576548
Sitting for more than 8 h a day has been shown to negatively impact health and mortality while standing is the recommended healthier alternative. Home-based standing programs are commonly recommended for adults who cannot stand and/or walk independently. The aim of this systematic review is to review effectiveness of home-based standing programs for adults with neurological conditions including stroke and spinal cord injury; and to provide dosage guidelines to address body structure and function, activity and participation outcomes.
Eight electronic databases were searched, including Cochrane Library databases, MEDLINE, CINAHL and EMBASE. From 376 articles, 36 studies addressing impact of a standing intervention on adults with sub-acute or chronic neurological conditions and published between 1980 and September 2015 were included. Two reviewers independently screened titles, reviewed abstracts, evaluated full-text articles and rated quality and strength of evidence. Evidence level was rated using Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine Levels and quality evaluated using a domain-based risk-of-bias rating. Outcomes were divided according to ICF components, diagnoses and dosage amounts from individual studies. GRADE and the Evidence-Alert Traffic-Lighting system were used to determine strength of recommendation and adjusted in accordance with risk-of-bias rating.
Stronger evidence supports the impact of home-based supported standing programs on range of motion and activity, primarily for individuals with stroke or spinal cord injury while mixed evidence supports impact on bone mineral density. Evidence for other outcomes and populations is weak or very weak.
Standing should occur 30 min 5 times a week for a positive impact on most outcomes while 60 min daily is suggested for mental function and bone mineral density.
date: 2005 Feb 4;27(3):142-6
author: Shields RK.
publication: Disabil Rehabil
An important issue in spinal cord injury (SCI) research is whether standing can yield positive health benefits. However, quantifying dose of standing and establishing subject compliance with a standing protocol is difficult. This case report describes a method to monitor dose of standing outside the laboratory, describes the standing patterns of one subject, and describes this subject’s satisfaction with the standing protocol.
A man with T-10 complete paraplegia agreed to have his commercially available standing wheelchair instrumented with a custom-designed logging device for a 2-year period. The micro-controller-based logger, under custom software control, was mounted to the standing wheelchair. The logger recorded date, duration, angle of standing, and start/stop times.
The client exceeded a suggested minimum dosage of standing per month (130.4% of goal), choosing to stand for short bouts (mean = 11.57 min) at an average angle of 61 degrees, on an average 3.86 days per calendar week. He was generally very satisfied with the standing device and provided subjective reports of improved spasticity and bowel motility.
This case report describes a standing and surveillance system that allow quantification of standing dose. Future controlled studies are needed to evaluate whether standing can be beneficially affect secondary complications after SCI.
date: 2016 Jun;38(11):1075-81
author: Macias-Merlo L1, Bagur-Calafat C2, Girabent-Farrés M3, A Stuberg W4.
Early identification and intervention with conservative measures is important to help manage hip dysplasia in children with a high adductor and iliopsoas tone and delay in weight bearing. The effect of a daily standing program with hip abduction on hip acetabular development in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy was studied.
The participants were 26 children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy (CP), classified at Level III according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Thirteen children stood with hip abduction at least 1 h daily from 12 to 14 months of age to 5 years with an individually fabricated standing frame with hip abduction.
At the age of 5 years, radiologic results of the study group were compared with a comparison group of 13 children with spastic diplegia CP who had not taken part in a standing program. The migration percentage in all children who stood with abduction remained within stable limits (13-23%) at 5 years of age, in comparison to children who did not stand in abduction (12-47%) (p < 0.01).
The results indicate that a daily standing program with hip abduction in the first 5 years may enhance acetabular development in ambulatory children with spastic diplegia CP. Implications for Rehabilitation Abnormal acetabular development is a problem related to mobility problems and spasticity muscles around the hip. The literature suggests that postural management and standing programs could reduce levels of hip subluxation and increase function in children with cerebral palsy. A standing program with hip abduction can be a beneficial to develop more stable hips in children with spastic diplegic GMFCS level III.
date: 2011 Summer;23(2):150-7
author: Martinsson C1, Himmelmann K.
publication:Pediatr Phys Ther.
: To study the effect of 1 year of daily, straddled weight-bearing on hip migration percentage (MP) and muscle length in children with cerebral palsy who were nonambulatory.
: Participants stood upright in maximum tolerated hip abduction and hip and knee extension ½ to 1½ hours per day for 1 year. Controls, matched for age, motor ability, and surgery, were derived from a national cerebral palsy follow-up program.
: Participants using straddled weight-bearing after surgery had the largest decrease in MP (n = 3, 20 controls; P = .026). Children using straddled weight-bearing at least 1 hour per day for prevention also improved (n = 8, 63 controls; P = .029). Hip and knee contractures were found only in controls.
: Straddled weight-bearing, 1 hour per day, may reduce the MP after adductor-iliopsoas-tenotomies or prevent an MP increase and preserve muscle length in children with cerebral palsy who did not need surgery. Larger studies are needed to confirm the results.
date: 2009 Fall;21(3):282-8. doi: 10.1097/PEP.0b013e3181b175cd
author: Taylor K.
publication: Pediatr Phys Ther.
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors considered in the prescription and implementation of standing–frame programs by school–based physical therapists.
A 20-item survey was mailed to 500 members of the APTA Pediatric Section and School–Based Special Interest Group. Survey questions addressed standing–frame program prescription and perceived benefits.
Response rate was 77.2%. A majority of respondents rated ambulatory status for the prescription of standing–frame programs and a child‘s specific needs in the selection of a specific standing frame as very important. Respondents identified multiple benefits with pressure relief rated very important most frequently. More than 50% of respondents indicated social and educational benefits are very important. A majority of respondents prescribed standing–frame programs for 30-45 minutes daily.
Variation does exist, but the majority of school–based physical therapists agree on several key factors in the prescription and implementation of standing–frame programs.