There is a lack of evidence-based recommendations for effective dosing of pediatric supported standing programs, despite widespread clinical use. METHODS:
Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (Child and Youth Version) framework, we searched 7 databases, using specific search terms. RESULTS:
Thirty of 687 studies located met our inclusion criteria. Strength of the evidence was evaluated by well-known tools, and to assist with clinical decision-making, clinical recommendations based on the existing evidence and the authors’ opinions were provided. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE:
Standing programs 5 days per week positively affect bone mineral density (60 to 90 min/d); hip stability (60 min/d in 30° to 60° of total bilateral hip abduction); range of motion of hip, knee, and ankle (45 to 60 min/d); and spasticity (30 to 45 min/d).
date: 17 November 2015.
author: Paleg G., Livingstone R.
publication: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
PubMed ID: 26576548
Sitting for more than 8 h a day has been shown to negatively impact health and mortality while standing is the recommended healthier alternative. Home-based standing programs are commonly recommended for adults who cannot stand and/or walk independently. The aim of this systematic review is to review effectiveness of home-based standing programs for adults with neurological conditions including stroke and spinal cord injury; and to provide dosage guidelines to address body structure and function, activity and participation outcomes. Methods
Eight electronic databases were searched, including Cochrane Library databases, MEDLINE, CINAHL and EMBASE. From 376 articles, 36 studies addressing impact of a standing intervention on adults with sub-acute or chronic neurological conditions and published between 1980 and September 2015 were included. Two reviewers independently screened titles, reviewed abstracts, evaluated full-text articles and rated quality and strength of evidence. Evidence level was rated using Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine Levels and quality evaluated using a domain-based risk-of-bias rating. Outcomes were divided according to ICF components, diagnoses and dosage amounts from individual studies. GRADE and the Evidence-Alert Traffic-Lighting system were used to determine strength of recommendation and adjusted in accordance with risk-of-bias rating. Results
Stronger evidence supports the impact of home-based supported standing programs on range of motion and activity, primarily for individuals with stroke or spinal cord injury while mixed evidence supports impact on bone mineral density. Evidence for other outcomes and populations is weak or very weak. Conclusions
Standing should occur 30 min 5 times a week for a positive impact on most outcomes while 60 min daily is suggested for mental function and bone mineral density.